Michael Madhusudan Dutta

Michael Madhusudan Dutta


Madhusudan Dutt appeared in the Bengali literature in the renaissance era of the nineteenth century with a new mantra of life, brilliance and vigor. His life story was as varied and wonderful as his colorful literature.

Madhusudan was born on January 25, 1824 AD in Sagardandi village of Jessohar district. His father Rajnarayan Dutt established himself as a prominent lawyer in Calcutta.


Madhusudan’s childhood education began in the village school under the supervision of his mother Jahnavidevi. It was during this time that he first got his mother’s inspiration for the story of Ramayana and Mahabharata.

In later times Madhusudan-prativa developed nourishment and prosperity based on this basic motivation.


Madhusudan was seven years old when Rajnarayan, a lawyer by profession, started living with his family in Khidirpur, Kolkata. 1833 AD He was admitted to the junior department of Hindu College. He received his education here till 1842 AD.


In this college he got Bhudev Mukhopadhyay, Rajnarayan Bose, Gaurdas Basak, Bholanath Chandra etc. as classmates. Later they all became famous in their respective fields.


The impact of the Hindu College education on the formation of Madusudan’s personal character was profound. On the one hand he gained a belief in man-mantra and a deep love of English literature; Likewise, disrespect for native customs and ideas was transmitted in his mind.


As a student he was always a success. He used to get scholarship in college examination. Received gold medal for writing essay on women education. Poems written in English were published in various literary journals. It is in this formula that a strong belief is born in the poet’s mind.

Madhusudan suddenly converted to Christianity on February 9, 1843 AD when he was a senior student.

He was initiated into Christianity by Archdeacon Deantry at Missionro’s church. His new name is Michael Madhusudan Dutta. Reluctance to marry the chosen bride of the father due to the overwhelming desire to leave


And Reverend Krishnamohan Banerjee’s obsession with the beautiful Vidushi Kanya—

Madhusudan is cited as the reason for his conversion.

As Christian students did not have the right to study in Hindu colleges, Madhusudan was admitted to Bishops College in Shivpur in 1844 AD. Rajnarayan still had to bear the expenses of his converted son.


He was inspired by classical tastes and artistic sensibilities and multilingual education from the polyglot Bishop Pandits at Bishops College. Later in life he also established himself as a polyglot.


1848 AD Madhusudan left the college suddenly for unknown reasons and went to Madras. There, he accepted a job as an English teacher at the Madras Male Orphan Asylum School with the efforts of the local Christian community. Later, in 1852 AD, he took the important post of second teacher in the school department affiliated to Madras University.


Madhusudan stayed in Madras for seven years. During this time he gained fame and social establishment as a teacher, journalist and poet. His articles and poems were regularly published in English newspapers and magazines. He wrote sonnets, lyric poems and short poems during this time under the pseudonym Timothy Penpoem.


Two long poems called The visions of the past: The captive lady were first published together in a book from Madras in 1849 AD.

During his stay in Madras, several notable events took place in the poet’s life.

1848 A.D. He married Rebecca Mastavis, a girl student at the Orphan Asylum. It is assumed that the married life of the poet was not particularly happy. However

They had four children.

1851 AD Madhusudan lost his mother. Meanwhile, he was in contact with an English girl named Henrietta. Rebecca’s refusal to grant a divorce prevented his legal or religious marriage to Henrietta.


However, his relationship with Henrietta was established and through his ups and downs, Henrietta was his lifelong partner. Henrietta’s full name was Emelia Henrietta Sophia. His father’s name was James Prembrook Cropley.


1856 AD Madhusudan came to Calcutta with Henrietta. This time his contact with native literature and culture was established. The best chapter of his life has begun.


Within a period of just six years before his journey to Europe, he composed one by one English translations of Ratnavali dramas, Sharmishtha, Ekei Ki Say Savvyata, Bur Saliker Gharke Ron, Padmavati, Krishnakumari etc. dramas and farces, Tilottmasambhava, Brajangana, Meghnadavadha, Virangana etc. poems and poems and English translation of Deenbandhu Mitra’s play Neeldarpan.


His literary work created a great stir in the intellectual circles of the country. Bengali literature made its full debut with new vitality. Poet Michael Madhusudan Dutta was honored and established in the heart of the Bengali nation.

On June 9, 1862, Madhusudan left for England to study barrister.

Henrietta found herself in financial distress as she had left her wife and children in Calcutta on the promises and assurances of the dignitaries who, through the sale and distribution of the paternal property, broke their promises within a few months of her journey to Europe. Finally, on 2nd May 1863, he

Somehow he collected money and went to Madhusudan in England with his daughters.

This time, the family suffered financial hardship abroad. Debt burdened

Madhusudan was rescued from the dire straits he was in at this time with the kind help and financial assistance of Ishwarchandra Vidyasagar. In 1865 AD the poet returned to the country after passing the barristers exam in February 1867 AD. Madhusudan’s education during his stay in Versailles, France in Europe

Did French, Italian and German.

On returning home, Madhusudan joined Calcutta High Court as a barrister and earned a lot of money in a short time. But in the modern European consumerist ideology, the poet’s life did not equate income and expenditure. As a result, disaster immediately descended on the extravagant and chaotic life. Passer is wasted.


In order to remove the uncertainty of income, he had to leave the barrister and accept the job of examiner in the translation department of the Privy Council Appeals with a monthly salary of one and a half thousand rupees.

But after two years, he left this work and returned to the law business.

The poet’s health was worn out by various diseases.

Having failed in the law business, Madhusudan took the job of legal adviser to the King of Panchkot in Manbhum in early 1872 AD. But within a few months he was forced to leave this work and return to Calcutta.


The last life of the poet was burdened with illness, financial difficulties and debt. In the meantime, he composed some sonnets and poems for various social reasons; a play called Mayakanan and a prose narrative called The Slaughter of Hector. He started several works but could not finish them.


Gradually Madhusudan became sick and unwell. Henrietta is also sick. In April 1873 AD, at the invitation of Jayakrishna Mukhopadhyay, the landlord of Uttarpara, he came to the second floor of the public library with his family from his house in Benepukur.


But as the disease was not relieved here, Bene returned to the pond. At the end of June, he was admitted to the General Hospital in a coma. On June 26, 1873, the poet’s wife, Henrietta, passed away. Just a few days later, on Sunday, June 29, at two o’clock in the afternoon, poet Madhusudan, Damalputra of Bangabharat, passed away.

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