Rabindranath, one of India’s greatest mystics and world famous poet, was born on 7th April 1861, Bengal 25th Baishakh 1268 in the famous Tagore family of Jorasanko, Calcutta. His father was Maharshi Devendranath Tagore and his mother was Saradadevi.
Though a zamindar family of those days, Thakurbari was foremost in the field of education and culture. Along with studies, the life of the children of this family started with music, acting, painting, physical training.
But in this large family there were separate worlds for men, women and children. Especially the younger ones had to live under strict discipline. They were looked after by family servants. Of course, parents were watching everywhere.
Rabindranath spent his childhood in the hands of servants. The beginning of his mental development is watching them. He passed from childhood to adolescence from among them.
In his later life, he wrote many articles about those servants who were experts in various subjects, which have become the wealth of Bengali literature.
He watched their strange lives in Bhrityaraj with fear mongering, memorization of Panchali from Ramayana Mahabharata and Dadagiri with endless bloodshot eyes, all with a sincere attitude of gratitude.
There was no way for the child Rabindranath to deviate from the strict rule of the servants. Rather, in the world of this rule, he learned to be obedient, to be patient, to adapt to the situation.
Recalling his childhood memories, he wrote, “We had a servant, his name was Shyam. Dark brown dohara boy, long hair on his head, his home in Khulna district. He used to make me sit in a certain place in the room and cut around me with chalk.
He would raise his index finger with a serious face and say, danger goes outside the boundary. I did not clearly understand whether the danger was physical or supernatural. But there was great fear.
I had read in the Ramayana that Sita had perished after crossing Pandi; For this reason I cannot dismiss Gandhi as a complete unbeliever. My literary practice started with all the books that were common among the servants. Among them, the Bengali translation of Chanakya’s verses and Krittivas Ramayana are the main ones.”
Thus was nurtured the talent of one who would later occupy the most valuable seat in world literature.
The boy Rabindranath was first sent to the Oriental Seminary for his education. Later, although he studied in every institution like Normal School, Bengal Academy, St. Xavier’s School, he could not complete his schooling.
He couldn’t accept anything from the school’s strictures, the behavior of the teachers and the environment. Even in his mature years he had resentments and complaints about this world.
He learned history, geography, mathematics, Sanskrit and English from his tutor, though not in formal education. Along with education, he also got education in music, acting and drawingdo There was immense interest in his eyes.
His eagerness and effort to know and understand everything in the world was unceasing. He was a devoted student in the nature classroom.
This is how he became familiar with the world and life day by day. His words later enriched Bengali literature in songs, poems, stories, essays, dramas and novels.
Rabindranath drew the attention of his father Devendranath by writing two hymns to God in his early childhood. Encouraged, his poetry practice continued. The influence of Dada Jyotirindranath and his wife Kadambari • Devi was also considerable in early life in the pursuit of poetry.
‘Gift of Hindu Fair’ poem was first published in the name of Rabindranath Bengali in the month of Magh 1281. A few years later, at the age of seventeen, Rabindranath was sent to Billet to study for the barrister. After a year and a half, he returned to the country on the orders of his father.
Bharti Balak Patrika was published from Thakurbari in Jorasanko. He used to write regularly in this Mui newspaper. His first issue published the short story Visharini and the first novel Karuna. Bhubanmohini Pratibha Rabinath’s first prose essay, published in Anasur magazine. At the age of eighteen, Rabindranath composed poetry, Bhanusingha Padabili, childhood music and many others.
Rabindranath’s acting career came to an end. After returning from the United States. He made his debut as Madan in the drama Manami written by Jyotirindranath. A year later he became famous by playing the role of Valmiki in the play Swarchit Valmiki Pratibha.
1882 A.D. Rabindranath Nirjhar composed the dream breaking poem. When Sandhya Sangeet was published in the same year, Rachi blessed the poet by wearing a garland around his neck.
Rabindranath got married to Bhavatarini Devi at the age of twenty two. After marriage, poet’s wife’s name was changed to Mrinalini. In the following year, Rabindranath started the work of looking after the zamindari on the instructions of his father.
At this time, he had to visit various regions of the country, especially Shilaidah and Sahajadapur, for material work. The free and generous approach of the beautiful nature is Kabir. Has inspired many works.
Devendranath bought Kuribidha land at Bolpur in Birbhum for the sole purpose of worshiping God. He came and lived here according to time and opportunity. It is here that Rabindranath Brahmacharya Ashram was established in 1901 AD which is now known as Santiniketan. Later this institution was transformed into Visva Bharati University.
In 1905 AD, political unrest started in this country against the British government’s plan to divide Bengal, India’s freedom movement. Rabindranath was also associated with this movement. His songs and poems inspired the countrymen with a sense of patriotism.
He composed his famous song ‘Banglar Mati Bengalar Jal, Bengalar Vayu Bengalar Fruit, Purna Hauk, Purna Hauk, Purna Hauk O Lord’ on the occasion of the protest movement against the partition of Bengal.
Rabindranath conducted a procession on 16th October 1905 AD and introduced Rakhi festival.
Although Rabindranath was not actively involved in politics, he protested against the tyrannical British rule through writings and speeches. 1919 A.D. Rabindranath renounced the knighthood awarded by the government in protest against the brutal killings by the British at Jallianwala Bagh in Punjab.
Rabindranath passed away in 1912 AD. There, the English artist Rodenstein was impressed by his English translation of Gitanjali poetry. Through him, he met poet May Sinclair, Ezra Pound, Yeats and other writers. Meanwhile the English translation of Gitanjali was published by Offerings London. From London, Rabindranath went to America and spoke at various meetings
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1913 AD Rabindranath returned to the country. In the same year, Sweden’s Sahitya Parishad honored Rabindranath with the Nobel Prize for Gitanjali poetry. No other Indian has won this award for literary work before. After receiving the Nobel Prize, Rabindranath was awarded the status of world poet. For Bengal as well as for India, Rabindranath is the only man of the world.
In 1914 AD Calcutta University awarded Rabindranath a doctorate and the following year the government conferred the title of Sir. In the same year, he went on a trip to Japan, China, France, America etc. Get to know artists like Benedetto Croce, thinker Raman Rolland etc.
1927 AD Rabindranath went to Far East and 1929 AD to Canada. 1930 A.D. He traveled abroad for the last time and visited Europe, America, Russia and Persia.
In this year he was invited to give a lecture on the Religion of Man at the Huppert Lecture at Oxford.
An exhibition of his late-life photographs titled Priya was shown in Paris and Berlin. Meet the scientist Einstein. The last time the poet went to Sinhalese was in 1934 AD.
Financial problems plagued Rabindranath for the school he established at Santiniketan. He used to spend the money collected from abroad for the development here. Even in his old age, he performed dances with students across the country to raise money for this organization. Considering his health at this time, Gandhiji helped him with 60 thousand rupees in 1966 AD.
The poet was felicitated at the age of seventy. In the meeting, the poet said, ‘I have only one identity, that is nothing else. I am a poet.’ On this occasion, the poet was presented with a rare book called The Golden Book of Tagore.
1937 AD Rabindranath was invited to address the convocation ceremony of Calcutta University and spoke in Bengali. The university again awarded him the title of D-Litt. In 1940, Oxford University awarded the poet a doctorate in a ceremony at Santiniketan. This is his last honor to the people of the world.
On his last birthday in 1941 AD, he read the essay Crisis of Civilization. Finally, on August 7, 1941 AD, ‘the sun of Magh went to Uttarayana.’
Rabindranath, the author of numerous novels, poems, songs, plays, short stories, essays, ballads, plays, letters and films, had only one turn in his poetic pursuit, that of meeting the infinite with the limit. He is the only poet whose two songs have been adopted as the national anthems of India and Bangladesh.